Mac SQL database
The default on Docker for Mac and Docker for Windows is 2 GB for the Moby VM, so you must change it to 4 GB. If you are running on Mac or Windows, use the following procedures to increase the memory.
Increase Docker memory to 4 GB (Mac)
The following steps increase the memory for Docker for Mac to 4 GB.
- Click the Docker logo on the top status bar.
- Select Preferences.
- Move the memory indicator to 4 GB or more.
- Click the restart button at the button of the screen.
Increase Docker memory to 4 GB (Windows)
The following steps increase the memory for Docker for Windows to 4 GB.
- Right-click on the Docker icon from the task bar.
- Click Settings under that menu.
- Click the Advanced Tab.
- Click the Apply button.
Pull and run the container image
- Pull the container image from Docker Hub.
docker pull microsoft/mssql-server-linux
For Linux, depending on your system and user configuration, you might need to preface each docker command with sudo.
- To run the container image with Docker, you can use the following command from a bash shell (Linux/macOS):
docker run -e 'ACCEPT_EULA=Y' -e 'MSSQL_SA_PASSWORD=' -e 'MSSQL_PID=Developer' -cap-add SYS_PTRACE -p 1401:1433 -d microsoft/mssql-server-linux
If you are using Docker for Windows, use the following command from an elevated PowerShell command-prompt:
docker run -e "ACCEPT_EULA=Y" -e "MSSQL_SA_PASSWORD=" -e "MSSQL_PID=Developer" -cap-add SYS_PTRACE -p 1401:1433 -d microsoft/mssql-server-linux
The only difference between the bash (Linux/macOS) example and the PowerShell (Windows) example is single quotes versus double-quotes around the environment variables. The docker run command fails if you use the wrong one. Throughout the remainder of this topic, bash and PowerShell code blocks are provided for convenience. If there is only one example, it works on all platforms, including Windows.
The following table provides a description of the parameters in the previous docker run example:
Parameter Description -e 'ACCEPT_EULA=Y' Set the ACCEPT_EULA variable to any value to confirm your acceptance of the End-User Licensing Agreement. Required setting for the SQL Server image. -e 'MSSQL_SA_PASSWORD=' -e 'MSSQL_PID=Developer' Specifies the edition or product key. In this example, the freely licensed Developer Edition is used for non-production testing. For other values, see Configure SQL Server settings with environment variables on Linux. -cap-add SYS_PTRACE Adds the Linux capability to trace a process. This enables SQL Server to generate dumps on an exception. -p 1401:1433 Map a TCP port on the host environment (first value) with a TCP port in the container (second value). In this example, SQL Server is listening on TCP 1433 in the container and this is exposed to the port, 1401, on the host. microsoft/mssql-server-linux The SQL Server Linux container image. Unless otherwise specified, this defaults to the latest image.
To view your Docker containers, use the docker ps command.
docker ps -a
You should see output similar to the following screenshot:
- If the STATUS column shows a status of Up, then SQL Server is running in the container and listening on the port specified in the PORTS column. If the STATUS column for your SQL Server container shows Exited, see the Troubleshooting section of the configuration guide.
There are two useful docker run options not used in the previous example for simplicity. The -h (host name) parameter changes the internal name of the container to a custom value. This is the name you'll see returned in the following Transact-SQL query:
SELECT @@SERVERNAME, SERVERPROPERTY('ComputerNamePhysicalNetBIOS'), SERVERPROPERTY('MachineName'), SERVERPROPERTY('ServerName')
You also might find the -name parameter useful to name your container rather than having a generated container name. Setting -h and -name to the same value is a good way to easily identify the target container.
Change the SA password
The SA account is a system administrator on the SQL Server instance that gets created during setup. After creating your SQL Server container, the MSSQL_SA_PASSWORD environment variable you specified is discoverable by running echo $MSSQL_SA_PASSWORD in the container. For security purposes, change your SA password.
- Choose a strong password to use for the SA user.
- Use docker exec to run sqlcmd to change the password using Transact-SQL. Replace and with your password values.
docker exec -it /opt/mssql-tools/bin/sqlcmd -S localhost -U SA -P '' -Q 'ALTER LOGIN SA WITH PASSWORD=;'
Connect to SQL Server
The following steps use the SQL Server command-line tool, sqlcmd, inside the container to connect to SQL Server.
- Use the docker exec -it command to start an interactive bash shell inside your running container. In the following example e69e056c702d is the container ID.
docker exec -it e69e056c702d "bash"
You don't always have to specify the entire container id. You only have to specify enough characters to uniquely identify it. So in this example, it might be enough to use e6 or e69 rather than the full id.
- Once inside the container, connect locally with sqlcmd. Sqlcmd is not in the path by default, so you have to specify the full path.
/opt/mssql-tools/bin/sqlcmd -S localhost -U SA -P ''
You can omit the password on the command-line to be prompted to enter it.
- If successful, you should get to a sqlcmd command prompt: 1>.
Create and query data
The following sections walk you through using sqlcmd and Transact-SQL to create a new database, add data, and run a simple query.